Saturday, 18 April 2015

Knowledge Discovery (KD)


Knowledge Discovery (KD)
It is an interdisciplinary area focusing upon methodologies for extracting knowledge[2]* (useful knowledge) from data. The ongoing rapid growth of online data due to the Internet and the widespread use of databases have created an immense need for KD methodologies. The challenge of extracting knowledge from data draws upon research in statistics, databases, pattern recognition, machine learning, data visualization, optimization, and high-performance computing, to deliver advanced business intelligence and web discovery solutions [1].

KD is widely used data mining technique which is a process that includes data preparation and selection, data cleansing, incorporating prior knowledge on data sets and interpreting accurate solutions from the observed results to be applied to benefit the business [3]. Data mining is considered the core step of knowledge discovery process [6]**.


Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery are terms used interchangeably. Other terms often used are data or information harvesting, data archeology, functional dependency analysis, knowledge extraction and data pattern analysis [4].


The purpose of KD is to access historical data and to identify relationships which have a bearing on a specific issue, and then extrapolate from these relationships to predict future performance or behavior. The human analyst plays an important role in that only they can decide whether a pattern, rule or function is interesting, relevant and useful to an enterprise [4].

Traditionally, data mining and knowledge discovery was performed manually. As time passed, the amount of data in many systems grew to larger than terabyte size, and could no longer be maintained manually. Moreover, for the successful existence of any business, discovering underlying patterns in data is considered essential. As a result, several software tools were developed to discover hidden data and make assumptions, which formed a part of artificial intelligence [5].


The recent KD houses many different approaches to discovery, which includes inductive learning, Bayesian statistics, semantic query optimization, knowledge acquisition for expert systems and information theory. The ultimate goal is to extract high-level knowledge from low-level data [5].

KD is not a fully automatically way of analysis. It should Interact with a user/expert, so user is an important element in KD process. User should decide about choosing task and algorithms, selection in preprocessing.

There are steps involved in the knowledge discovery. These steps are [5][7][8]:

Goal Identification:
Identify the goal of the KD process from the customer’s perspective.

Domain Understanding:
Understand application domains involved and the knowledge that's required by understanding your requirements. You need to have a clear understanding about the application domain and your objectives, whether it is to improve your sales, predict stock market etc. You should also know whether you are going to describe your data or predict information.

Selection of data set:
Data mining is done on your current or past records. Thus, you should select a data set or subset of data, in other words data samples, on which you need to perform data analysis and get useful knowledge. You should have enough quantity of data to perform data mining. For example, if firmographic attributes are the most important criteria, then only the data models that meet the minimum threshold for annual income or revenue would be selected. If psychographic data matter more, then records might be selected for specific interests such as camping, concerts or social causes.

Data Cleaning:
Also known as Data Hygiene. This step is done through cleanse (clean) and preprocess data by deciding strategies to handle missing fields and alter the data as per the requirements. In other words, data cleaning is the step where noise and irrelevant data are removed from the large data set. This is a very important preprocessing step because your outcome would be dependent on the quality of selected data. As part of data cleaning, you might have to remove duplicate records, enter logically correct values for missing records, remove unnecessary data fields, standardize data format, update data in a timely manner and so on.

Data Integration:
Simplify the data sets by removing unwanted variables. Then, analyze useful features that can be used to represent the data, depending on the goal or task. You can say that this step is about combining more than one set of data—such as customers and prospects or leads that are in various stages of the demand waterfall. You may also want to aggregate prospects from more than one source, including both purchased and rented lists. Although there are several steps involved in data integration, the most important is de-duplicating the records. This can eliminate a tremendous amount of waste. But you must establish rules that define which source is preferred when duplicates are found. - See more at:

Data Transformation:
With the help of dimensionality reduction or transformation methods, the number of effective variables is reduced and only useful features are selected to depict data more efficiently based on the goal of the task. Data is transformed into a uniform set and optimized for use in a marketing program or campaign. All the fields must be consolidated, merged and purged so that they will be easy to index. In short, data is transformed into appropriate form making it ready for data mining step.

Data Mining:
In this step some appropriate tasks are applied in order to extract data pattern. These tasks are classification, clustering, association rule discovery, sequential pattern discovery, regression and deviation detection. You can choose any of these tasks based on whether you need to predict information or describe information. This step can be done by:
  •  Matching KD goals with data mining methods to suggest hidden patterns.
    • It involves searching the various fields of the database for specific attributes. These are then used to identify trends that can be matched against the predictive models
  • Choose data mining algorithms to discover hidden patterns. This process includes deciding which models and parameters might be appropriate for the overall KD process. This can be done by:
    • Selecting appropriate method(s) for looking for patterns from the data.
    • Choosing the model and parameters that might be appropriate for the method (Search for patterns of interest in a particular representational form). Some popular data mining methods are decision trees and rules, relational learning models, example based methods etc.

Pattern Evaluation:
Interpret essential knowledge from the mined patterns and relationships. The patterns that emerge during the data mining process must be evaluated to determine which are relevant to the model and which aren’t. If the pattern evaluated is not useful, then the process might again start from any of the previous steps, thus making KD an iterative process.

Knowledge Presentation:
This is the final step in KD. The knowledge discovered is consolidated and represented to the user in a simple and easy to understand format. Mostly, visualization techniques are being used to make users understand and interpret information. This step allows you using the knowledge and incorporate it into another system for further action. Morevover, you can document it and make reports for interested parties.


Note:
*Knowledge extraction: is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing. It requires either the reuse of existing formal knowledge (reusing identifiers or ontologies) or the generation of a schema based on the source data [2].

**knowledge discovery process: is the process that leads to find new knowledge in some application domain. It also called knowledge discovery in databases. The process defines a sequence of steps (with eventual feedback loops) that should be followed to discover knowledge in data. Each step is usually realized with the help of available commercial or open-source software tools. [6].

References:

Sunday, 12 April 2015

What does Foobar mean?

Foobar is a slang term used in the IT world as a placeholder to refer to generic examples or temporary files or programs that are to be deleted. The technical term for a word like foobar is a metasyntactic variable*. These types of terms are used to name variables, programs or other parts of code [1].

It cames from the use of foo in a programming context is generally credited to the Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) of MIT.
 
For instance, a computer science professor may be discussing different file formats. In this case, he would call the generic-example file foo or foobar, then list the extensions associated with the file formats (e.g. foobar.txt, foobar.gif, foobar.exe, foobar.tar).
When foo or foobar is used, everyone understands that these are just examples, and they don't really exist [2].


*A metasyntactic variable is a placeholder name used in computer science, a word without meaning intended to be substituted by some objects pertaining to the context where it is used. Example, the word foo. Read more


References:
  1. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/foobar.html 
  2. http://www.techopedia.com/definition/615/foobar by
 

Do you want to know about your computer in one window screen?

System Toolbox (Sys Toolbox)

If you want to know information about your computer from processor, drivers, motherboard, memory, operating system,...and more, you can depend on this software.

Sys Toolbox (see screen shoot from the software) provides a software and hardware information for windows operating system. It is a simple software that you can use it to know about your PC.

To run the software, you need to:
  1. Extract the zipped software. 
  2. After that, right click on the software icon and choose "Run as administrator".
  3. Finally, you will find a pop up screen telling you information about you PC.
To go to the software site: http://sys-toolbox-pro.soft112.com/
To Download the software: Download



Thursday, 20 November 2014

Let's appear easily with NO Subscription & NO Money require

Would you like to start a video chat with one or more friend(s)?

Do you want to avoid the subscription routine?

Do you need to video chat without any paid money or without any installation?

If your answer with YES, so let's APPEAR.IN

Appear.in is a video chatting web site that allows you to video chat with your friends without any money paid or any subscription steps.

All what you need to do is just:
1. Pick a name for your chatting room.
2. Click create.
3. Hit copy link.
4. Send the link on email,  chat,  SMS to who you want to talk.
5. Once your friends click the link, they  will appear in the room with you.

Note. If you have an IPhone you must install the application of the appear.in first.

Thursday, 13 November 2014

Stop your Computer from taking default settings every time you restart or turn your Computer off

If you turn off your PC and turn it on again, you find that your windows desktop, browser, and programs are changed and the default settings are taking the place of your last work. Then this means your PC has a restore point which force it to return to its default every time you restart or turn off your PC.

So to remove the restore point, please follow the following steps:
  1. Right click on your "my computer" icon and choose Properties.
  2. Control Panel\System and Security\System\System protection
  3. Select System Protection tab
  4. Under Protection Settings
  5. Select your Drive that has "on" in the Protection column.
  6. Click on Configure.
  7. Under Restore Settings, Select "Disable System Protection".
  8. Click apply then OK.
  9. Doing the previous steps will turn your drive to be in "off" position instead off "on".
  10. Restart your PC.





Thursday, 30 October 2014

Web Conferencing Softwares - Part 1


AnyMeeting Software

AnyMeeting offers a full-featured web conferencing product designed and priced for small business, including a completely free ad-supported option.

It has a built in ‘Voice over Internet Protocol’ (VoIP) which delivers voice communications and multimedia sessions over networks.

At the beginning of the meeting, you can choose your audio meeting from two available options, which are using your telephone or using your computer microphone.

You can join the meeting by phone, computer, or tablet. 

 AnyMeeting Features:
  1.  Conference call: provides a “conference call number” that allows joint partners calling each other by dealing the conference call number to hear the meeting audio. 
  2. Video sharing: up to “6” people can share their webcams at once. In addition, videos can be resized automatically to make best use of the meeting space. You also can share your YouTube video by clicking on the share button then select YouTube to play a YouTube video. 
  3.  Audio sharing: you can share your mic live on the internet with your partners. 
  4.  Screen sharing: allows you to share your screen and allows you to select an application to share from a list of different provided applications. 
  5.  Text sharing: you can write and chat with your partners by typing your message at the right-bottom from you software screen. It also gives you the opportunity to send your text to everyone or to the presenters. 
  6.  Presentation sharing: you can share your slides, power point presentation, and PDFs by clicking on the share button by uploading them into your meeting for everyone to see. 
  7.  Video recording: you can record your meeting and it will be stored directly at the AnyMeeting servers so that you can find it and access it from anywhere.
  8. Social media integration: you can use social media integration to automatically promote your meetings on Facebook and Twitter. Once enabled, AnyMeeting can send meeting announcements and updates to your feed.
You can use the free version but not all the features included or you can pay it monthly and surely the full features will be available.


You can visit AnyMeeting site by clicking here: http://www.anymeeting.com/

Wednesday, 22 October 2014

Merge & Split PDF Files



The following Tools allow you to do many functions on PDF files. In this post we will concern with Merging and Splitting PDF Files.
The following tools are ordered from Free to Trial versions:

1. Icecream Split&Merge
Icecream Split&Merge, a free application that does exactly what it says; enables you split and merge PDF files quickly and easily. (Free)




2. PDFSAM
PDF Split and Merge is an easy-to-use tool with graphical and command line interfaces to spit, merge, mix, and rotate your PDF documents. (FREE)






3. SODAPDF
SODAPDF tools provide many methods such as combining different file types into one PDF and splitting PDFs. It also merge different PDFs into a large one. (FREE)
You can merge your PDFs through:
CREATE & CONVERT > Combine Files

OR split your PDF through:
CREATE & CONVERT > Batch Files

You can also merge your PDFs online.
However the tool force you to select AVG security toolbar to use it.






4. PDFill PDF
FREE PDF functions to merge, split, reorder, delete, encrypt, decrypt, rotate, crop and reformat PDF pages,  to add information, header, footer and watermark, to convert images to PDF, PDF to images or PostScript to PDF, to delete, flatten and list form fields, to scan to pdf, to create transparent image, and more. (FREE)





5. Adolix Split & Merge PDF
Using this product you can split PDF documents into multiple files following a customized pattern. Also you can use this free application to combine PDF files into a single document.  (You can use the free version)






6. Adobe Acrobat
Acrobat provides you with multiple tools to edit your PDFs such as you can Merge and split your PDF files. (You can use the trial version)






7. Nitor
It also provides you with multiple features to edit your PDF files. You can combine and split your PDF files. (You can use the trial version)






8. Foxit
It also provides you with multiple features to edit your PDF files. You can combine and split your PDF files. (You can use the trial version)





9. Debenu PDF
Debenu PDF Tools provides two different approaches for merging PDF files and set of methods for splitting pages from a PDF file to separate files. (You can use the trial version)






10. PDF-XChange Editor
PDF-XChange Editor tool provide allows you to combine different file types into one PDF and splits PDFs. (You can use the trial version)






11. Simpo PDF Editor
Combines two software - PDF merger and PDF splitter into a program, so you can not only merge multiple PDF files into a single PDF, but also split a PDF to several with this 2-in-1 PDF tool. (You can use the trial version)